Constructor-Based Dependency Injection

In the case of constructor-based dependency injection, the container will invoke a constructor with arguments each representing a dependency we want to set.

Spring resolves each argument primarily by type, followed by name of the attribute and index for disambiguation. Let’s see the configuration of a bean and its dependencies using annotations:

public class AppConfig {
    public Item item1() {
        return new ItemImpl1();
    public Store store() {
        return new Store(item1());

The @Configuration annotation indicates that the class is a source of bean definitions. Also, we can add it to multiple configuration classes.

The @Bean annotation is used on a method to define a bean. If we don’t specify a custom name, the bean name will default to the method name.

For a bean with the default singleton scope, Spring first checks if a cached instance of the bean already exists and only creates a new one if it doesn’t. If we’re using the prototype scope, the container returns a new bean instance for each method call.

Another way to create the configuration of the beans is through XML configuration:

<bean id="item1" class="" /> 
<bean id="store" class=""> 
    <constructor-arg type="ItemImpl1" index="0" name="item" ref="item1" />